Discover the concepts underlying the business of the Army.  Click HERE to submit concepts not included in this list.

Six Business Core Principles

Core Principles of Army business are the beliefs and behaviors that are the foundation for integrating key performance and operational requirements within a results-oriented framework that creates a basis for action, feedback, and ongoing success.

Ethics and Transparency
This principle reflects the mandate for ethical behavior in all business transactions and interactions, which secures public trust and empowers the workforce to make effective decisions. Key to ethical behavior is consistent, candid, and open communication; accountability; and the sharing of clear and accurate information through the chain of command and to the Nation.

Management by Fact
Army business leaders and managers measure and analyze performance to support business needs and strategy, extracting larger meaning from data and information to support evaluation, decision making, improvement, and innovation.

Managing for Innovation
Army leaders and managers support a work environment that promotes entrepreneurship, pursuit of intelligent risk, and failure tolerance to make meaningful change that improves the effectiveness and efficiency of business processes and operations.

Stewardship and Auditability
Leaders, at every echelon, are accountable for stewardship of the tax dollars they receive and the proper execution of business processes, including associated internal controls and the audit readiness of their organizations. Core Principles of Army business are the beliefs and behaviors that are the foundation for integrating key performance and operational requirements within a results-oriented framework that creates a basis for action, feedback, and ongoing success.

Systems Perspective
Army business leaders manage holistically, ensuring the totality of functions delivering DOTMLPF-P to fulfill the Army’s Title 10 requirements operate as a unified whole to fulfill operational requirements and support strategic objectives.

Valuing People
The workforce is the cornerstone of Army business. Approaches to recruitment, retention, development, engagement, empowerment, diversity, and inclusion build the capability and capacity to effectively address current and future business challenges.

Army Business Enterprise Architecture (ABEA)

The ABEA applies enterprise architecture discipline to maintain a catalog of:
  • Major end-to-end processes (E2Es)
  • The Army taxonomy of operational activities (individual tasks that are performed in the course of executing a process that may or may not be enabled by an IT System)
  • The catalog of Army Defense Business Systems (DBS)
  • Results of the annual architecture assessments, which detail the operational activities supported by each DBS.
  • System-System interactions
  • Laws, regulations and policies (LRP) and their affinities with E2Es
  • Descriptions of the information exchanges that are produced and consumed in the course of executing a process 
​This knowledge base is organized by the functional domains (Acquisition, Finance, Human Resources, Installations/Energy/Environment, Logistics and Training/Readiness) and lines of business (breakdowns of domains) and is the authoritative Army resource for the above information.

Business Capability Acquisition Cycle (BCAC)

The BCAC is a governance implementation and management structure.  Through it, responsibilities are assigned to functional and acquisition communities, and direction is provided to identify business needs and develop capability and Information Technology requirements. BCAC has five phases that support continuous improvement:
1. Capability Need Identification: establishes a clear understanding of needed business capabilities so that the functional sponsor and the milestone decision authority can decide to invest time and resources into investigating business solutions.

2. Business Solution Analysis: determines the high-level business processes supporting the future capabilities so that the functional sponsor and component acquisition executive or designee can maximize use of existing business solutions and minimize creation of requirements that can only be satisfied by a business system.

3. Business System Functional Requirements and Acquisition Planning: establishes the acquisition strategy that will support functional requirements.

4. Business System Acquisition Testing and Deployment: achieves organizational change through business process changes and delivery of the supporting business system, with minimal customization.

5. Capability Support: provides enduring support for the capability established by the business system.  This includes active engagement in both functional and technical opportunities for continuous process improvement to maintain the relevance of the capability, the supporting technology, and the hosting solution.
In order to streamline decision-making and allow for a quicker transition between phase activities, BCAC is focuses on five core principles that enable any process to succeed:
1. Work as a Team: key constituencies work together as one team with functional, acquisition, and IT members involved throughout the lifecycle. 

2. Plan to Evolve: the lifecycle is continual.  Sustainment requires criteria and triggers that define on-ramps back into the business need analysis to restart the cycle

3. Adopt Best Practices: do not reinvent the wheel.  Be willing to prioritize requirements, deploy the 80% solution, change processes to minimize customization, and stop the effort if it is not going to achieve the outcome.

4. Show the Money: increase transparency by allocating and tracking funding for all activities across the DOTMLPF-P spectrum, including the cost of requirements development and sustainment.

5. Deliver Value: deliver a capability that addresses the entire DOTMLPF-P spectrum, not just a system.  Increase value by reducing time to deliver capability. 

Army Mission Areas

There are four Army mission areas and 18 domains:

Business Mission Area (BMA) - led by DUSA
Acquisition - led by ASA(ALT)
Financial Management - led by ASA(FM&C)
Human Resource Management - led by ASA(M&RA)
Installations & Management - led by ACSIM
Civil Works - led by ASA(CW)
Logistics - led by ASA(ALT) ROS

Warfighting Mission Area (WMA) - led by G-3/5/7
Focused Logistics - led by G-4
Battlespace Awareness - led by G-2
Force Application - led by G-8
Force Protection - led by G-8
Net-Centric - led by G-6
Force Management - led by G-3/5/7/FM
Training - led by G-3/5/7/TR
Command & Control - led by G-3/5/7/SB

Enterprise Information Environment Mission Area (EIEMA) - led by CIO/G-6 (GA&CKO)
Communications - led by CIO/G6 (AONS)
Computing Infrastructure - led by CIO/G6 (AONS)
Core Enterprise Services - led by CIO/G6 (GA&CKO)
Information Assurance - led by CIO/G6 (GA&CKO)

Defense Intelligence Mission Area (SIMA) - led by G2

Enterprise Demand Management

Enterprise demand management is the analysis and management activities necessary to ensure efficient, orderly, and comprehensive implementation of cross-domain related capability, technology and compliance demands placed on the enterprise. It rationalizes and synchronizes competing requirements across the enterprise prior to assignment of implementation responsibilities. Senior leader prioritization determines funding, and implementers are accountable. Implementation of the solution is optimized for enterprise performance, and senior leaders have visibility of implementation progress.

Enterprise demands do not get implemented comprehensively and often get implemented in a manner that are optimized for specific domain business operations at the expense of the enterprise.

Integrated Management System (IMS)

An Integrated Management System facilitates the systematic and continuous identification, adjudication, implementation, and assessment of business reforms.
  • Supports integration of the Army’s people, processes, data, and information.
  • Is guided by business core principles
  • Enables resource informed decision-making
  • Supports good stewardship
  • Enables the Army to focus on evolving priorities

Portfolio Rationalization

Portfolio Rationalization refers to the optimization of investments in and management of the Army's Defense Business System.  Optimization of the Army's business portfolio is focused on the following criteria:
  • Reduce cost
  • Increase the efficiency and effectiveness of Army business processes
  • Reduce unnecessary and redundant IT systems
  • Consolidate disparate and non-interoperable IT systems under the federated ERP system environment
  • Close capability gaps with the Army Business Mission Area
  • Improve audit-readiness and transparency

Core Enterprises

There are four Core Enterprises:

Personal Core Enterprise

Material Core Enterprise

Readiness Core Enterprise

Services and Infrastructure Core Enterprise

Business Transformation Plan

A Business Transformation Plan details how an organization will manage its business operations to achieve the short-term and long-term objectives that support mission achievement.  A Business Transformation Plan are reviewed and updated annually. 
Business Process Improvement (BPI)
Business process improvement is a component of Business Process Management the discipline in which people use various methods to discover, model, analyze, measure, improve, optimize, and automate business processes. Any combination of methods can be used to improve the organizations ability to execute their mission at a high level efficiently and effectively.


Continuous Process Improvement (CPI)

Continuous process improvement (CPI) is the act of implementing improvements to a product, service or process. These changes can either be incremental (over time) or breakthrough (all at once).

CPI isn’t a one-time initiative. You don’t just optimize a certain process once, pat yourself on the back, and call it a day. Once you succeed with a process improvement initiative, you need to periodically look back and see whether there are any changes you could make. 

Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) Techniques

Business Process Mapping
To get a better idea of the hows and whys of the process you’re working on, you’ll need to create a business process map. The simplest way is to create a flowchart including different process steps.

Deming Cycle (PDCA)
he Deming Cycle, also known as PDCA, is a concept introduced by Dr. Edwards Deming. There are 4 steps:

  1. Plan – Identifying a goal or purpose, formulating a theory, defining success metrics, and putting a plan into action.
  2. Do – Implementing the plan on a small scale to prove or disprove it’s validity
  3. Check – Measuring and monitoring outcomes to test the validity of the plan. This allows for identification of potential problems and areas for improvement
  4. Act – Taking the knowledge gained from the previous steps and putting it to use. This can either mean implementing it on a wider scale or restart the cycle and apply the lessons learned to change the plan for the better
Creating the Culture for Continuous Process Improvement (CPI)

The key to establishing a culture of continuous process improvement is to make it a part of company culture. It should start top-down from the organization – senior leaders should encourage managers to make suggestions on process improvement. This, in turn, will trickle down from the managers to those executing the tasks on the front-line.

As a given, there should be a system that rewards initiative. Anyone that contributes an idea or two (whether it’s implemented or not) should be encouraged and rewarded.

An example of a system you can use is the “Kaizen Corner.” It’s a place where all of your workers can go and hand in suggestions on how to improve processes. This usually works in three stages

  1. Everyone’s suggestions and considered and evaluated. The employees are made aware of the reasoning for accepting certain suggestions and rejecting others. This helps show your team that their input is valued, whether their suggestions are implemented or not.
  2. To ensure that the employees do a better job in the long-term, you hold training on process analysis.
  3. Offer different incentives for employees to help with process improvement.
DMAIC is an acronym that describes a sequential step-by-step approach that can be used to improve a business activity.

Define the business activity

Measure the variables impacting the business activity

Analyze the measured data to develop an understanding of how each input impacts the output of the business activity.

Improve, or adjust the way the business activity is executed in order to optimize the output of the business activity.

Control, establish routine ways to adjust and maintain those activities that impact the optimization of the output of the business activity.


Program Objective Memorandum

A Program Objective Memorandum is a recommendation from the Services and Defense Agencies to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) concerning how they plan to allocate resources (funding) for a program(s) to meet the Service Program Guidance (SPG) and Defense Planning Guidance (DPG).

Army Reform Initiative

Army reform initiative is a systematic approach for the identification, adjudication, approval and implementation of reform initiatives designed to free up time, money and manpower for redirection to other priorities and to empower subordinate commands to make efficient, timely and effective decisions. The end state of reform initiatives is authorities, responsibilities and resources residing at the lowest level of command enabling expeditious action and informed decisions.  

Business Mission Area
The business interest of the Army mission area framework. Working in coordination with the defense intelligence, warfighting, and enterprise information environment mission areas, the BMA guides, governs, and manages all business operating activities and associated business system portfolios within the Army. It is organized along six primary domains (acquisition, financial management and comptroller, human resource management, installation, energy, and environment, logistics and training and readiness) that encompass DoD validated business operating activities. It ensures that the generating force provides the right capabilities, organization, resources, and materiel to the operating force.


A domain is a subset of the BMA portfolio that aligns to areas of common operational and functional require-ments. A BMA domain includes the core business processes of that mission subset and the business systems that predominantly support those core business processes. The Army retains six BMA domains: acquisition ASA(ALT), financial management ASA(FM&C), human resources management ASA(M&RA)/DCS, G – 1, logis-tics ASA(ALT)/DCS, G – 4, installations, energy, and environment (ASA(IE&E)/DCS, G-9 and training and readi-ness DCS-G3/5/7.Leaders drive the performance improvement process.